Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Lophiiformes
(Anglerfishes) > Oneirodidae
Etymology: Pentherichthys: Greek, 'penthos' = sorrow or mournfulness + Greek, 'ichthys' = fish (probably alluding to its "sad look": "mournful fish") (Ref. 86949).
More on authors: Regan & Trewavas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range ? - 2500 m (Ref. 86949). Deep-water
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.9 cm (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 5 - 7. Characterized by having large melanophores inside the rays of the caudal fin; metamorphosed females have ethmoid region of the cranium extremely flattened dorsoventrally; deep and wide illicial trough, nasal foramina narrow and elongate; absence of symphysial spine of lower jaw; dentaries forming thick, broad, posteriorly directed flange immediately lateral to their union on the midline, ventral margin of lower jaw at symphysis concave when viewed anteriorly; short illicium of pterygiophore, posterior part broad and dorsoventrally flattened; metamorphosed females having wide ethmoid cartilage and vomer, width about equal to distance between anterolateral tips of lateral ethmoids and frontals; absence of vomerine teeth; short frontals, anterior end overhanging and extending past anterior limits of the ethmoid cartilage and vomer, convex dorsal margin; well developed first ray of dorsal fin; dorsal fin rays 6-7; anal fin rays 5-7; short and broad pectoral fin lobe, shorter than the longest rays of pectoral fin; pectoral fin rays 21-27; coracoid lacking posteroventral process; pelvic bones, simple and expanded distally; skin naked, without dermal spinules; darkly pigmented skin of caudal peduncle extends well past base of caudal fin; metamorphosed males have posterior nostril contiguous with the eye, nasal area is white and with 18 olfactory lamellae, 7-9 upper denticular teeth fused at bases and 4 lower denticular teeth (Ref. 86949).
Also mesopelagic. Males dwarfed and non-parasitic (Ref. 10524).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bertelsen, E., 1990. Oneirodidae. p. 498-507. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post, and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 10524)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2 - 3.3, mean 2.9 °C (based on 404 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fecundity assumed < 1000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .