Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Nemipteridae
(Threadfin breams, Whiptail breams)
Etymology: Pentapodus: Greek, pente = five + Greek, pous = feet (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 70 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 3°S - 30°S, 135°E - 165°E (Ref. 3810)
Western Pacific: northeastern Australia, southern Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and the Philippines. This species has been previously confused with Pentapodus setosus by most authors.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3810)
soft rays: 7. Head scales reaching forward to or almost to level of posterior nostrils. Suborbital naked. Lower limb of preopercle naked. Pelvic fins short, not reaching to level of anus. Upper lobe of caudal fin produced into a very long trailing yellowish-brown filament. Axillary scale present. Color: Upper body pale brownish, lower whitish. Presence of three bluish stripes across snout, first joining eyes behind nostrils, second in front of nostrils, third from eye to tip of snout. A yellow stripe from behind eye to upper base of pectoral fin. A yellow stripe from middle of upper lip, beneath eye to below pectoral fin.
Found near reefs. Juveniles in rubble areas (Ref. 9710). Solitary or in small groups (Ref. 90102). Feeds on small fishes, crustaceans and polychaetes (Ref. 9785).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Russell, B.C., 1990. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 12. Nemipterid fishes of the world. (Threadfin breams, whiptail breams, monocle breams, dwarf monocle breams, and coral breams). Family Nemipteridae. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of nemipterid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(12):149p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 3810)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 28, mean 26.5 °C (based on 150 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00722 - 0.03173), b=2.97 (2.79 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 64.6 [38.6, 126.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.666 [0.359, 1.179] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.3, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.156 [0.093, 0.264] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.9 [20.6, 66.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 63.6 [17.1, 175.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.23 [0.78, 1.84] mg/100g (wet weight);