Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Nemipteridae
(Threadfin breams, Whiptail breams)
Etymology: Pentapodus: Greek, pente = five + Greek, pous = feet (Ref. 45335); numberii: Named for Mr. Fredy Numberi, the Indonesian Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 12 - 60 m (Ref. 80700), usually 18 - 60 m (Ref. 80700). Tropical
Western Pacific: Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 80700)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 7. This species is distinguished by the following characters: caudal fin forked with upper and lower rays as long trailing filaments; a single dusky (blue in life) stripe on side of snout; a pale-yellow stripe in life on middle of side that can be instantly 'switched' on or off; predorsal scales up to level between posterior margin of posterior nostrils; suborbital is scaled; lower limb of preopercle with 3 rows of scales; 45-46 lateral-line scales; 15-16 pectoral-fin rays; pelvic fins moderately long, in adult males, reaching level of anus (Ref. 80700).
Usually observed on moderately sheltered outer reef slopes, over sand-rubble substrates, with occasional coral ridges and sea whips (Ref. 80700). Frequently in turbid waters, solitary or in groups (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann, 2009. Pentapodus numberii, a new species of whiptail (Pisces: Nemipteridae) from Eastern Indonesia. Zool. Stud. 48(2):280-286. (Ref. 80700)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.2 - 29, mean 28.5 °C (based on 70 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00732 - 0.03276), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .