Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Penetopteryx: Greek, peneteyo = to be poor + Greek, pteryx = wing, fin (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 2 m (Ref. 5316). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: Madagascar to Christmas Island (Line Islands).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 5 - ? cm
Max length : 7.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5316)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Sub-adults and adults are demersal and have been found among gravel and coral rubble. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Males may be brooding at 5.4 cm SL.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Dawson, C.E., 1985. Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA. (Ref. 5316)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 1819 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00049 (0.00022 - 0.00111), b=3.10 (2.91 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .