Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 140 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 23°N - 18°N, 163°W - 153°W
Eastern Central Pacific: Hawaii.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 26 - ? cm
Max length : 51.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 54393)
soft rays: 7;
Vertebrae: 24. Diagnosis: Pectoral rays 15 (rarely 14 or 16). Gill rakers 6-7 + 24-27 (total 30-34). Body depth 2.85-3.25 in SL; head length (HL) 2.85-3.1 in SL; snout length 1.85-2.2 in HL; barbels short, 1.65-1.95 in HL; longest dorsal spine 1.55-1.85 in HL; last dorsal ray slightly longer than penultimate ray; posterior margin of each caudal lobe convex; pectoral-fin length 1.3-1.5 in HL; pelvic-fin length 1.2-1.4 in HL. Body red to reddish brown dorsally, light red ventrally, with a white saddle-like spot on caudal peduncle flanked anteriorly and posteriorly by a dusky spot, the posterior one darkest; a reddish brown band from front of snout through eye and along body to above lateral line, fading and broadening below second dorsal fin, dark band behind eye and anteriorly on body bordered by a white band; fins mainly red; barbels white (Ref. 54393).
Inhabits lagoon and seaward reefs; in small groups under ledges or among corals by day, dispersing at night to feed among rocks and corals on benthic crustaceans (Ref. 9710). It is a nocturnal predator that feeds mostly on benthic crustaceans (Ref. 13550). Spawning appears to be year-round with the peak from December to July; females may spawn more than once a year (Ref. 54393).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (36):64 p. (Ref. 54393)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.9 - 25.5, mean 20.3 °C (based on 8 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.01057 - 0.04323), b=3.18 (3.01 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 36.9 [17.9, 83.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.324 [0.166, 0.689] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [15.5, 21.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.128 [0.071, 0.241] g/100g ; Selenium = 71.8 [30.9, 172.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 175 [27, 704] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.481 [0.283, 0.995] mg/100g (wet weight);