Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river; insularis: Named for its occurrence on oceanic islands of the Pacific ['insularis' = islands]. More on authors: Randall & Myers.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 80 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical
Eastern Central Pacific: Hawaii, French Polynesia, and Pitcairn Islands to the Marshall, Mariana, Phoenix, and Samoa islands. This species is included in the Parupeneus trifasciatus complex where, Parupeneus trifasciatus is restricted to the Indian Ocean and Parupeneus crassilabris is from eastern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific, east to Fiji, Tonga, and the Caroline Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13550); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 4887)
Occurs on coral reefs and adjacent habitats, generally in less than 30 m (Ref. 45589), but has been recorded to 83 meters (Ref. 54393). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Stomach contents of 12 specimens consist of 44% by volume of crabs; followed by shrimps, octopuses, mantis shrimps, amphipods and other crustaceans, fishes, and polychaetes (Ref. 45589).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (36):64 p. (Ref. 54393)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 28.7, mean 26.8 °C (based on 168 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00572 - 0.01917), b=3.10 (2.95 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 43.9 [21.8, 96.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.333 [0.178, 0.702] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [15.2, 21.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.132 [0.073, 0.241] g/100g ; Selenium = 58.7 [26.2, 131.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 280 [44, 1,087] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.575 [0.345, 1.179] mg/100g (wet weight);