Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river; inayatae: Named for Inayat Al Hakim, marine biodiversity scientist at the Research Centre for Oceanography, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jakarta, Indonesia, for her support of fish taxonomy and invaluable logistic assistance when hosting the senior author at the NCIP fish collection at LIPI Jakarta during research visits.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Tropical
Eastern Indian Ocean: Indonesia (Lombok).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 119514)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is distinguished by the following characters: pectoral fins 15-16 (left-right side); gill rakers 7 + 22 = 29; lateral-line scales 27. Measurements in % SL: body depth at first dorsal-fin origin 30 and at anus 24; caudal-peduncle depth 11; maximum head depth 26; head depth through eye 22; interorbital length 8.8; head length 32; snout length 16; postorbital length 11; orbit length 7.2; upper jaw length 12; barbel length 24; caudal-peduncle length 24; caudal-fin length 29; anal-fin height 15; pelvic-fin length 24; pectoral-fin length 24; first dorsal-fin height 20; second dorsal-fin height 13; the dorsal head margin in front of eyes concave; posterior maxilla margin evenly and symmetrically rounded. Colouration: body and head mostly cinnabar red, the body becoming lighter below lateral line from orange red to rose on underside; faint dusky spot on the lateral line below interdorsal space with an orange blotch behind; below lateral line are 4 yellow stripes, the two dorsal-most stripes following contour of lateral line; opercular and preopercular margins are cinnabar red; scales below lateral line with contrasting cinnabar-red edges; second dorsal fin cinnabar red proximally with broad yellow distal margin; anal fin is mostly yellow with 3 rose bands; caudal fin cinnabar red with innermost distal area orange red; barbels are pale rose whitish; fish is pale brown with darker opercle when preserved (Ref. 119514).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Uiblein, F., T.A. Hoang, U. Alama, R. Causse, O.E. Chacate, S. Garibay and P. Matiku, 2018. A new species and new records of goatfishes of the genus Parupeneus (Mullidae) from the Indian Ocean, with updated occurrence information for P. jansenii in the Western Pacific. Cybium 42(3):229-256. (Ref. 119514)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= No PD50 data [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00551 - 0.02625), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .