Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river. More on authors: Temminck & Schlegel.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 54393), usually 74 - 78 m (Ref. 54393). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: disjunct distribution: Japan to coast of Aomori Prefecture, Honshu, the Izu Peninsula, Kochi Pref., Ogasawara Islands and southeastern Taiwan; in the south from the Arafura Sea, the NW shelf and Kimberly region of Western Australia; from Geographe Bay northwards.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48636)
soft rays: 7. This species is distinguished by the following characters: pectoral rays 15-16 (rarely 15); gill rakers 6-7 + 19-22 = 26-28; greatest body depth at or slightly anterior to origin of dorsal fin, 2.9-3.25 in SL; head length (HL) 2.8-3.1 in SL; snout length 1.65-1.9 in HL; cheek depth (lower edge of eye vertically to ventral margin of preopercle) 6.5-9.6 in SL; barbels 1.35-1.45 in HL; the longest dorsal spine 1.5-1.75 in HL; pectoral-fin length 1.25-1.4 in HL, 3.55-4.2 in SL; pelvic-fin length 1.4-1.65 in HL. Colour pale reddish to bluish gray, scale edges red, a yellow stripe from eye to base of caudal fin just above lateral line (stripe may be red in fish from deep water); barbels white to pale yellow (Ref. 54393).
Apparently occurs in deeper waters in the warmer seas of lower latitudes (Ref. 54393). Inhabits silt or mud bottoms near reefs (Ref. 90102).Done
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (36):64 p. (Ref. 54393)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.6 - 27.4, mean 25.9 °C (based on 42 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00771 - 0.02471), b=3.08 (2.93 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 82.5 [37.8, 201.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.408 [0.208, 0.931] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [14.7, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.205 [0.103, 0.422] g/100g ; Selenium = 125 [54, 320] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 50.5 [8.0, 243.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.459 [0.259, 0.998] mg/100g (wet weight);