Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river; chrysonemus: Named for its golden yellow barbels. More on authors: Jordan & Evermann.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 183 m (Ref. 54393), usually 60 - ? m. Tropical
Eastern Central Pacific: Hawaii and Johnston islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 54393)
soft rays: 7. Diagnosis: Pectoral rays nearly always 16 (4 of 36 specimens with 15 on one side and 17 on the other). Gill rakers 7-8 + 25-28 (total 32-35). Body depth 3.3-4.05 in SL; head length (HL) 2.7-3.05 in SL; eye relatively large, the orbit diameter 4.4 - 5.3 in HL (118-196 mm SL); snout length 1.65-2.1 in HL (snout progressively longer with growth); barbel long 1.1-1.3 in HL; dorsal spine longest in HL; last dorsal rays about equal in length; pectoral-fin length 1.35-1.5 in HL; pelvic fins 1.2-1.4 in HL. White, scale edges narrowly dark, with a red or brown band from front of snout along back adjacent to base of dorsal fins, the scales within band with dark brown edges, and many with a dark brown spot; a red or dark brown stripe from front of snout through eye and broadening as it follows the lateral line; stripe partially interrupted below rear base of second dorsal fin, then ending in a broad slightly oblique bar on caudal peduncle; a vertically elongate dark red or dark brown spot within stripe behind eye in line with posterior margin of preopercle; barbels varying from bright red to yellow or mixed red and yellow; membranes of first dorsal fin red; second dorsal fin red basally, the outer half with narrow irregular pale yellow and pale blue bands separated by dark reddish lines; anal fin with similar bands on all of fin; caudal fin mainly yellow, usually with small white spots basally; pelvic fins largely red. Specimens from the deep water are entirely red without upper band and lateral stripe; a dark red spot behind eye; fins colored as in shallower-water fish except caudal fin more red (Ref. 54393).
Found over sand (Ref. 58302). Generally found at depths deeper than 60 meters (Ref. 54393).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (36):64 p. (Ref. 54393)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.5 - 20.2, mean 10.1 °C (based on 7 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00551 - 0.02625), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 164 [74, 421] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.515 [0.249, 1.184] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [14.5, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.246 [0.122, 0.504] g/100g ; Selenium = 93.3 [38.7, 253.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 92 [14, 441] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.6 [0.3, 1.3] mg/100g (wet weight);