Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 60 - 70 m (Ref. 89891). Tropical; 38°N - 33°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although reported from Bermuda by recent authors, this species is not native to the said country (Ref. 35505).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 7. Black and white stripes on pale head and body; dark stripes more or less alternate in width, with wide bands slightly wider than diameter of pupil (Ref. 26938). First dorsal fin elevated; pelvic fins of adults usually just reaching anus (fins of juveniles greatly prolonged) (Ref. 13442).
Occurs in clear waters of tropical islands, especially near coral reefs, but also in adjacent bays over rough bottom. Also often found under eroded edges of seagrass beds (Ref. 26938). Maximum depth from Ref. 126840. Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1996. Caribbean reef fishes. Third Edition - revised and enlarged. T.F.H. Publications, Inc. Ltd., Hong Kong. 3nd ed. 368 p. (Ref. 13442)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.9 - 28, mean 25.9 °C (based on 454 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00579 - 0.01650), b=3.12 (2.98 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 81.4 [46.8, 172.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.728 [0.437, 1.206] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.9 [18.6, 21.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.152 [0.084, 0.238] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.7 [20.7, 64.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 64.2 [21.8, 195.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.38 [0.89, 2.03] mg/100g (wet weight);