Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 20 m (Ref. 86942). Subtropical; 20°S - 36°S
Indo-Pacific: endemic to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Morphology | Morphometrics
Snout with minute cirri; large patch on tip of snout across lachrymal bones about equal in size to those in smaller patch on nasal bone. Fleshy pad on isthmus with width about 1/4-1/3 of its length (Ref. 39602).
Found inshore, in soft bottom.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.8 - 25.7, mean 22.3 °C (based on 282 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .