Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 25 - 290 m (Ref. 50546). Subtropical; 33°S - 34°S
Southeastern Pacific: Endemic to Juan Fernández Is. (Ref. 89357).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27569)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits depths of about 150 m (Ref. 27569). Minimum depth from Ref. 58018. Present usually on whitish sandy bottoms where it is easily camouflaged (Ref. 89357).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Rosa, I.L. and R.S. Rosa, 1997. Systematic revision of the South American species of Pinguipedidae (Teleostei, Trachinoidei). Revta Bras. Zool. 14(4):845-865. (Ref. 27569)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.5 - 9.6, mean 9.5 °C (based on 2 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00290 - 0.01435), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .