Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Paranibea: Greek, para = the side + see under Nibea genus. More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan (Ref. 2875) round the coasts of India eastwards to the Malay Peninsula. Reported occurrence in Indonesia (Ref. 5978) has been based on misidentification of Nibea soldado (Sasaki, pers. comm.)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3490); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3490)
Coastal throughout its range. Sold fresh, also dried salted in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lal Mohan, R.S., 1984. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3490)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.3 - 29.1, mean 28.4 °C (based on 1098 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00272 - 0.01274), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 179 [97, 345] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.793 [0.463, 1.412] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.7, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.17 [0.09, 0.31] g/100g ; Selenium = 79 [41, 159] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15 [6, 45] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.14 [0.73, 1.75] mg/100g (wet weight);