Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335). More on author: Ginsburg.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 185 m (Ref. 5217), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Central Atlantic: Colombia and Venezuela to Trinidad and Tobago. Reported to range south to Suriname (Ref. 13608).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 55 - 64. Head moderately pointed; brown with numerous roundish dark spots on head, body and fins, many as large or larger than eyes; also numerous small dark and small pale spots; teeth uniserial, the anterior ones enlarged; origin of dorsal fin above or slightly anterior to the front edge of eyes; caudal fin biconcave; pelvic fins short-based, symmetrically placed, and subequal (Ref. 13442).
Found over muddy and sandy bottoms. Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E. and R. Vergara, 1978. Bothidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). FAO, Rome. Vol. 1. pag.var. (Ref. 3275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.2 - 28, mean 26.5 °C (based on 246 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00323 - 0.01625), b=3.16 (2.98 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .