Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gonorynchiformes
(Milkfish) > Kneriidae
Etymology: fortuita: Name reflects a number of fortuitous circumstances that were involved in collecting this species; camp was made at sunset at river under the impression it was the Okavango, when next morning the error was discovered it was impossible to go on to the Okavango as the Cutato bridge was burnt down and heavy rain had closed the alternate route, leaving this the only place to work that day; also October 13 1972 was a Friday (Ref. 86888).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 13°S - 15°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 52193)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8;
Vertebrae: 43. Diagnosis: elongate, small species, body depth 6.4-8.0 times in SL; body width 8.2-10.0 times in SL; head rather short, 4.9-5.5 times in SL, about twice as long as broad (Ref. 86888). Head smooth, round in front, flat below (Ref. 52193). Eye laterodorsal (Ref. 86888), about 4.1-5 times in HL, 0.9-1.3 times in interorbital distance and 1.6-2.1 times in snout length (Ref. 89112), its horizontal diameter slightly less than interorbital distance; snout length equal to postorbital distance; interorbital distance about equal to mouth width; jaws without teeth, but with horny edges to jaws (Ref. 86888). Mouth straight, tadpole-like; gill openings form a slit above pectoral fins (Ref. 52193). Dorsal fin origin very slightly anterior to pelvic fin origin, slightly posterior to midpoint of SL (Ref. 86888), nearer to origin of caudal fin than to snout (Ref. 52193). Anal fin well posterior (Ref. 86888), closer to caudal fin origin than pelvic fin origin (Ref. 52193, 86888). Anal fin membrane relatively thick; pectoral fin large and ventral, its length 0.9 times in HL, 6.0 times in SL; pelvic fin 1.3 times in pectoral, 8.1 times in SL; strip of belly between pectoral and pelvic fins appears naked but has fine transparent scales; top, bottom and sides of head naked (Ref. 86888).
Lives among rocks in flowing water; feeds off diatoms and other algae and detritus scraped from rock surfaces (Ref. 7248, 52193).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poll, M., 1984. Kneriidae. p. 129-133. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3565)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .