Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - 429 m (Ref. 11892), usually 0 - 30 m. Polar; 61°S - 79°S
Southern Ocean: Ross Sea, Davis Sea, Wilhelm II Coast, north of Edward VII and west coast of Antarctic Peninsula.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11892)
(total): 4 - 5;
soft rays: 26 - 30. In life yellowish brown, iridescent blue dorsally; some specimens with patches of coral pink near the head (Ref. 5179). Six dark spots on back below the dorsal fins (Ref. 11892).
A cryopelagic species associated with the underside of ice. Feeds on copepods and euphausiids.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Dewitt, H.H., P.C. Heemstra and O. Gon, 1990. Nototheniidae. p. 279-331. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5179)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -1.9 - -1.2, mean -1.8 °C (based on 236 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00316 - 0.01821), b=3.15 (2.94 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.28 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .