Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Pagellus: Diminutive of Latin, pager, derived from Greek, pagros = a fish, Dentex sp. (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range - 300 m (Ref. 4781), usually 20 - 100 m (Ref. 4781). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 60°N - 10°N, 26°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Norway and the Mediterranean to Guinea-Bissau (Ref. 26999), including Cape Verde, Madeira and the Canary Islands. Rarely recorded in Scandinavia (Ref. 4781).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.7, range 13 - 16 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); max. published weight: 3.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
Found on inshore waters, on various bottom (rock, gravel, sand and mud) to 200 m (Mediterranean) or 300 m (Atlantic) and move to deeper waters during winter. Omnivorous, but feed mainly on benthic invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 3688). Protogynic hermaphrodites, females become males first in their third year with sizes of about 17 cm. Important food fish.
Possibly two spawning periods in the southern Mediterranean (Ref. 4781). Length at which sex change possibly occurs is between 12.8 and 20.3 cm FL (Ref. 57849).
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.2 - 21, mean 17.2 °C (based on 492 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00899 - 0.01112), b=3.01 (2.98 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.0 (5.0 - 8.0) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 17 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24; tm=1-2; tmax=13; Fec=31,000).
Prior r = 0.47, 95% CL = 0.31 - 0.78, Based on 13 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 103 [44, 227] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.685 [0.410, 1.192] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.1 [19.0, 21.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.386 [0.265, 0.579] g/100g ; Selenium = 102 [48, 188] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.74 [1.61, 29.84] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.478 [0.321, 0.717] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.