Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Oxyporhamphus: Greek, oxy = sharp + Greek, rhamphos = bill, peak (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Issue on validity of subspecies: subspecies considered as valid in FB, elevated to species rank as Oxyporhamphus micropterus (Valenciennes, 1847) in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Mar. 2011: Ref. 86697). Please send references, or more studies are needed.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 1 m (Ref. 58302), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 20°N - 20°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Tonga, north to southern Japan (Ref. 33390). Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Peru (Ref. 9306). Replaced in the Atlantic by Oxyporhamphus similis.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 13 - 13 cm
Max length : 18.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9843)
A true oceanic species, not bound to coastal waters at any period of its life (Ref. 9843).This species is the only halfbeak which doesn't have an extended lower jaw at the adult phase (Ref. 9306). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 36576).
Collette, B.B., 1986. Hemiramphidae. p. 388-391. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4164)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.3 - 29.2, mean 27.9 °C (based on 25608 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00288 (0.00134 - 0.00621), b=3.11 (2.92 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.15 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.0).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .