Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 4 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 35°N - 24°S, 92°E - 157°W
Pacific Ocean: Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean to the Line Islands, north to the Izu Islands, south to Great Barrier Reef.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
soft rays: 8. Characterized by alternating dark brown and whitish stripes, dark stripes narrower than pale ones; dark midlateral stripe extending onto caudal fin; greatest depth of body 2.7-3.1 in SL (Ref. 90102).
Common in reef flats and shallow lagoons to a depth of about 4 m. Also found in rocky reefs (Ref. 93839). Feeds on small crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 1602). Nocturnal species (Ref. 7300). Usually in pairs swimming close to shelter (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 1824 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00744 - 0.02681), b=3.16 (3.00 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 124 [67, 225] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.985 [0.602, 1.812] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.182 [0.099, 0.326] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.9 [11.3, 51.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 129 [41, 409] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.27 [0.82, 1.98] mg/100g (wet weight);