Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: More on authors: Jordan & Snyder.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 10 m (Ref. 93839). Subtropical
Western Pacific: subtropical, from southern Japan to Taiwan, then from subtropical Australia to New Caledonia and the Kermadec Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by having the following characteristics: dorsal fin rays VII-I, 9; anal fin rays II, 8; pectoral fin rays 15; pelvic fin rays I, 5; pored lateral line scales 24; predorsal scales 3; circumpeduncular scales 12; body pinkish brown, with four dark brown stripes on lateral surface of body; third stripe posteriorly not reaching to a black spot on caudal fin base; caudal fin base spot subequal in size to pupil diameter (Ref. 93839).
Commonly occurs in rocky areas near shore and abundant on ledges. Solitary but pair off during breeding. Mouth brooding is done by the male. Nocturnal species (Ref. 7300).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20 - 28.9, mean 27.6 °C (based on 1621 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00789 - 0.02416), b=3.18 (3.03 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 0.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 98.9 [46.8, 226.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.51 [0.74, 3.09] mg/100g ; Protein = 20 [19, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.233 [0.115, 0.477] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.1 [5.7, 38.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.4 [4.5, 104.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.08 [0.60, 1.90] mg/100g (wet weight);