Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Opistognathidae
Etymology: Opistognathus: Greek, opisthe = behind + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335); macrognathus: Name from Greek 'makros' for long and 'gnathos' for jaw (Ref. 26893) More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 44 m (Ref. 26893), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Atlantic: southern Florida, USA and Bahamas to northern South America. Including Antilles but absent in Jamaica (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 14 - 16. Black spot on upper half of dorsal fin from sixth or seventh to ninth spines. Males have long, upcurved extension of maxillary bone marked with black bands (Ref. 26938). Females appear to lack the long double-banded maxilla, and there is only a single blackish band at the corner of the mouth (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits sandy bottoms near coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Feeds on gastropods, crabs and fishes (Ref. 13628). Monogamous (Ref. 52884). Oviparous, mouthbrooding by males (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Displays facultative monogamy where males are constrained to mate with a single female due to resource limitation (Ref. 52884). Males incubate the eggs in the mouth (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.3 - 28.1, mean 27 °C (based on 180 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 83.6 [51.2, 153.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.62 [0.37, 0.98] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.9, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.112 [0.071, 0.178] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.1 [18.3, 59.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 104 [40, 259] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.52 [1.06, 2.13] mg/100g (wet weight);