Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 70 m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical; 36°N - 18°N, 93°W - 74°W (Ref. 55260)
Western Central Atlantic: North Carolina (USA), Bahamas and northwest Florida to Campeche Bank (Yucatan).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Bright pattern of dark spots on the pale pectoral fins. Small mouth. Wide interorbital distance and a thick, massive head on which, in large specimens rests a small, knoblike rostrum, because the rostrum is characterized by ontogenetic allometry: very long in juveniles, very short in adults. Lateral line scale count: subopercular 7-8; cheek series usually 8 (Ref. 40824).
A rare species found on sandy, muddy, or rocky bottoms.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lieske, E. and R. Myers, 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 27.7, mean 25 (based on 206 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00739 - 0.05145), b=2.96 (2.73 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .