Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 77 - 254 m (Ref. 41496), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Northwest Pacific: Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 14 - 16;
soft rays: 4 - 6;
Vertebrae: 26 - 29. No spines on the lateral surface of the lachrymal nor on the lateral surface of the first suborbital bone (Ref. 41496). Dorsal fin membranes deeply incised; second and third dorsal spines no elongated relative to succeeding spines. Origin of dorsal fin at or behind level of rear margin of eye (Ref. 35987).
Inhabits continental edges.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.6 - 21, mean 18.5 °C (based on 105 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.00769 - 0.04510), b=3.01 (2.80 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .