Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Notothenioidei
() > Nototheniidae
(Cod icefishes) > Nototheniinae
Etymology: Notothenia: Greek, 'notos', ou; ?????, ??), from the south + Greek, 'e 'eutheneia',as or 'euthenia', as (????????, ??; ???????, ??), abundance (P. Romero, pers.comm. 01/16).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 9003). Temperate
Southwest Pacific: New Zealand. Southeast Pacific: Chile (Ref. 9068). Throughout the subantarctic.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9003)
Juveniles found in rock pools. Feeds on squids, other invertebrates, and small fishes.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paulin, C. and C. Roberts, 1992. The rockpool fishes of New Zealand (Te ika aaria o Aotearoa). Museum of New Zealand (Te Papa Tongarewa). 177 p. (Ref. 9003)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.4 - 14.6, mean 10.7 °C (based on 130 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00320 - 0.01497), b=3.17 (2.99 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .