Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 51243). Temperate; 10°C - 30°C (Ref. 2060); 10°S - 38°S
Oceania: Queensland and New South Wales, Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894)
Occur in freshwater streams and brackish shore areas. Inhabit still or gently flowing freshwater streams over rock, mud or gravel, a bottom-dwelling fish. Usually found near aquatic vegetation or woody debris. During rainy periods, may migrate downstream into estuaries, but they normally frequent fresh water. Relatively sedentary species, spending majority of their time stationary on the bottom or among weeds waiting for prey. Breed in fresh water, as juveniles have been collected from the upper reaches of rivers, including impoundments. Both adults and juveniles have venomous dorsal, anal and pelvic spines and therefore should not be handled (Ref. 44894).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .