Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Tropical; 24°N - 8°S, 62°E - 116°E (Ref. 114953)
Indo-West Pacific: Arabian Sea (Pakistan) to South-East Asia (Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam and southern China).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 14 - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9912)
Subtrapezoidal disc, a uniform purplish-brown, brown, or tan dorsal coloration (devoid of any other markings), and wide, broadly rounded tooth bands (Ref. 49866).
Found in continental waters, both inshore and offshore (Ref. 9912). Occurs over soft bottoms; feeds on bottom-living organisms; possesses electric organs (Ref. 68964). Biology little known (Ref. 9912). Gravid females produces 2-3 pups during each gestation. Males mature at ca. 14 cm TL; born at ca. 6 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
de Carvalho, M.R. and J.E. Randall, 2003. Numbfishes from the Arabian Sea and surrounding gulfs, with the description of a new species from Oman (Chondrichthyes: Torpediniformes: Narcinidae). Ichthyol. Res. 50(1):59-66. (Ref. 49866)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.9 - 28.6, mean 27.1 (based on 1313 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00390 - 0.02813), b=2.87 (2.64 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .