Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335).
Taxon constantly recognized at subspecies rank, including in Eschmeyer's CofF (ver. Nov. 2020) under the species Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758. As subspecies are no more main entries in FishBase, the information about Mullus barbatus ponticus will be moved under the species as a "Stock".
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 100 - 300 m (Ref. 4845). Temperate; 47°N - 41°N, 27°E - 42°E
Black Sea and Sea of Azov.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. )
Occurs over mud, sand and gravel bottoms of the continental shelf. Feeds on small benthic invertebrates (crustaceans, worms and mollusks) (Ref. 4845).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hureau, J.-C., 1986. Mullidae. p. 877-882. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4845)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= No PD50 data [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00532 - 0.01361), b=3.06 (2.93 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .