Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
() > Mullidae
Etymology: Mulloidichthys: Latin, mullus = soft + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 30 - 110 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S, 51°E - 133°W
Indo-Pacific: Reunion to the Hawaiian, Marquesan, and Society islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Tonga; Mariana and Marshall Islands in Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1602)
This schooling species occurs at depths exceeding 30 m to at least 110 over sandy patches and limestone bottoms (Ref. 5439). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). It is mainly diurnal. May display four alternating dark red and light red bars on the body when feeding (Ref. 5439).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.4 - 28.3, mean 27.2 °C (based on 156 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00495 - 0.02116), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .