Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal. Tropical; 40°N - 10°N
Asia: Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 25 - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6351)
Morphology | Morphometrics
A rudimentary dorsal fin originates a little anterior to vertical from anus. Presence of numerous spots all over tail.
Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Adults known to hibernate in mud during cold season (Ref. 6351). Feed mainly on small fishes, tadpoles and aquatic insects (Ref. 6351). The male guards and builds nest or burrow (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
The male guards and builds nest or burrow (Ref. 205).
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Volume 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. (Ref. 4833)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00078 (0.00043 - 0.00140), b=3.11 (2.94 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.64 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 386 [93, 1,022] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.896 [0.380, 2.428] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.7, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.377 [0.185, 0.755] g/100g ; Selenium = 78.4 [33.8, 173.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.3 [6.9, 63.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.17 [0.59, 2.69] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.