Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 9310). Temperate; 51°N - 14°N, 129°W - 92°W
Eastern Pacific: Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, to Gulf of California; rare north of Point Conception in California, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 72462)
Often occur in rocky areas and in kelp beds. Found from inshore areas to 40 m depth. Feed on seaweed and small invertebrates. Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049). Also caught with harpoons. The flesh is of excellent quality and is marketed fresh (Ref. 9310).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.5 - 22.3, mean 18.1 °C (based on 18 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.22 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 37.4 [21.4, 62.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.36 [0.23, 0.55] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [18.0, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.53 [0.34, 0.84] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.1 [12.1, 41.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.96 [2.16, 16.36] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.619 [0.463, 0.844] mg/100g (wet weight);