Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 65 m (Ref. 90102), usually 20 - 65 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); 35°N - 25°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and Kenya east to Hawaiian Islands, Fanning Islands and Samoa; northward to Japan south to Australia. Apparently not found off New Zealand (Ref. 8991).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8991); common length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9645)
Found on outer reef slopes, hovering above the bottom. They swim often high above the substrate to pick prey from the substrate with their excellent eyesight (Ref. 48635). Tends to swim away from its pursuer rather than enter its burrow (Ref. 1602). Solitary or in pairs (Ref. 9710), adults form monogamous pairs (Ref. 37816). Maximum depth from Ref. 027115.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and genetic (Ref. 52884).
Dooley, J.K., 1978. Systematics and biology of the tilefishes (Perciformes: Branchiostegidae and Malacanthidae) with descriptions of two new species. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. No. 411:1-78. (Ref. 8991)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29, mean 27.9 °C (based on 1578 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00340 - 0.01618), b=3.01 (2.81 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .