Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 50 m (Ref. 30874), usually 14 - 45 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); 32°N - 32°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to Panama and Columbia, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to the Lord Howe and Austral islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 26.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
Inhabits barren, open areas of outer reef slopes. Occurs in pairs over rocks or sandy areas adjacent to reefs (Ref. 5213). Usually lives in a burrow of their own construction, often under a surface rock on sand (Ref. 48635). Has pelagic stage to at least 5 cm, hence smaller juveniles are not seen on the substrate (Ref. 48635). Benthic and Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9119). Minimum depth reported not from Ref. 30874.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Dooley, J.K., 1978. Systematics and biology of the tilefishes (Perciformes: Branchiostegidae and Malacanthidae) with descriptions of two new species. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. No. 411:1-78. (Ref. 8991)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29, mean 27.9 °C (based on 1154 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00237 - 0.01216), b=3.03 (2.82 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .