Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Macruronidae
Etymology: Macruronus: Greek, makros = great + Greek, onos = hake.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; non-migratory; depth range 250 - 658 m (Ref. 57178). Subtropical; 33°S - 38°S, 14°E - 27°E (Ref. 58452)
Southeast Atlantic: off South Africa in deep waters off the Cape of Good Hope, Mossel Bay and off Algoa Bay.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Probably inhabiting very rough bottom or mid-waters.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.7 - 15.6, mean 11.8 °C (based on 12 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00190 - 0.00957), b=3.04 (2.84 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .