Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 77°N - 48°N, 25°W - 45°E
Northeast Atlantic: North Sea, around the British Isles, Norwegian Sea, southwestern Barents Sea and around southern Iceland.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 106276)
Morphology | Morphometrics
No overlap of dorsal and caudal fins, but rarely overlapping anal and caudal fins (Ref. 35388).
Occurs from intertidal to 30 m, often under stones or clinging to algae. Feeds primarily on crustaceans; gammarid amphipods in intertidal; shrimps and small crabs in subtidal areas. Spawns in winter; young are also found in the Wadden sea (Ref. 35388).
Eggs are deposited on algae or polyp colonies.
Wheeler, A., 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 41(suppl.A):1-37. (Ref. 5204)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.8 - 12.3, mean 10.1 °C (based on 433 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00388 - 0.01233), b=3.21 (3.04 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=793).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 116 [57, 277] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.426 [0.257, 0.775] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.9, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.678 [0.300, 1.864] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.7 [8.7, 49.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.6 [5.0, 41.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.818 [0.552, 1.228] mg/100g (wet weight);