Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 10 - 80 m (Ref. 2295). Tropical; 32°N - 23°S, 32°E - 160°E
Indo-West Pacific: widespread, including the Red Sea, Arabian (Persian) Gulf, East Africa to Sri Lanka, to the Ryukyu Islands and Papua New Guinea. Also recorded from Micronesia (Ref. 3807) and French Polynesia (Ref. 4517) but these are probably misidentifications of Lethrinus olivaceus.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 29.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); max. published weight: 4.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 8. The snout is moderately long, its dorsal profile slightly concave. Body color is bluish gray or brown often with scattered irregular dark blotches on sides; sometimes three dark streaks radiate forward from the eye. The fins are pale or orangish.
Found over sandy areas near coral reefs (Ref. 30573). Feeds on fish, crustaceans, cephalopods, and polychaetes. Swims in small schools sometimes together with L. olivaceous. Utilized as a food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1954 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00791 - 0.02097), b=2.95 (2.82 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .