Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Notothenioidei
(Icefishes) > Nototheniidae
(Cod icefishes) > Nototheniinae
Etymology: Lepidonotothen: Greek, lepis = scale + Greek, noton = back + Greek, adverbial particle, then, that denotes distance or remova (Ref. 45335); squamifrons: squamifrons from Latin squama scale, plus frons, frontis forehead for its full upper head cover of small scales (Ref. 11892). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 10 - 900 m (Ref. 11892), usually 195 - 312 m (Ref. 11892). Temperate; 45°S - 79°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 5179)
Southern Ocean: South Georgia Island and Bouvet Island. Also known from sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctic Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 19 - 36 cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5179); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2121); max. reported age: 19 years (Ref. 5789)
Feeds chiefly on macrozooplankton (mainly crustaceans, cnidarians and salps) and midwater fishes.
Dewitt, H.H., P.C. Heemstra and O. Gon, 1990. Nototheniidae. p. 279-331. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5179)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.3 - 2.8, mean 1.7 °C (based on 21 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00392 - 0.00585), b=3.23 (3.17 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.52 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08-0.12; tm=7-9; tmax=19; Fec = >10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 20.4 [11.9, 35.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.257 [0.167, 0.399] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.6 [13.9, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.566 [0.330, 0.985] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.4 [8.0, 30.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 35.7 [12.5, 104.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.551 [0.400, 0.758] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.