Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 2 - 160 m (Ref. 47581). Tropical; 31°N - 27°S, 36°E - 178°W
Indo-West Pacific: Port Sudan in the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to Japan, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), and Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.0, range 8 - 8 cm
Max length : 11.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3424); common length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3424)
Found over muddy sand bottoms of coastal inshore waters (Ref. 47581). Often enters estuaries (Ref. 4833). Forms schools. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
James, P.S.B.R., 1984. Leiognathidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 2. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3424)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 2086 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.01563 - 0.02432), b=2.94 (2.88 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 0.9 (0.6 - 1.2) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 20 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.88-2.63; tm=1.2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .