Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 120 m (Ref. 11230). Subtropical; 41°N - 22°N, 117°E - 141°E (Ref. 54561)
Northwest Pacific: Yellow and East China seas.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); max. reported age: 23 years
Found in the sublittoral zone above 120 m in sandy mud bottoms (Ref. 11230). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Trewavas, E., 1977. The sciaenid fishes (croakers or drums) of the Indo-west Pacific. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 33:253-541. (Ref. 5369)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.4 - 24.2, mean 16.7 °C (based on 107 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00842 - 0.01034), b=3.06 (3.03 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.7 (2.0 - 4.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Tmax=3-23; K=0.2-0.7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .