Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Centrarchiformes
(Basses) > Kuhliidae
Etymology: Kuhlia: Because of Heindrich Kuhl, 1797-1821; researcher also with lizards (Gekkonidae). More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 1 - 22 m (Ref. 58302), usually 1 - 5 m (Ref. 58302). Subtropical
Eastern Central Pacific: endemic to Hawaii.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 18 - 20 cm
Max length : 22.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 41640)
soft rays: 10 - 11. Preorbital serrae 11-18; body depth 2.3-2.7 in SL; dorsal profile of head of adults slightly concave; eye large, 2.6-2.95 in head length; second anal spine 86-98% length of third spine; pelvic spine 2.2-2.5 in head length; caudal concavity 1.8-2.0 in head length. Silvery, caudal fin dusky to dark gray with a narrow black posterior margin and often a pale band (Ref. 41640).
Found in brackish water, tide pools, over sand, and near rocks and reef in estuaries, back-reefs, or areas of strong surge (Ref. 58302). Inshore species, often seen in schools (Ref. 41640). Adults nocturnal (Ref. 41640).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E. and H.A. Randall, 2001. Review of the fishes of the genus Kuhlia (Perciformes: Kuhliidae) of the Central Pacific. Pac. Sci. 55(3):227-256. (Ref. 41640)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 25.6, mean 25.3 °C (based on 30 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00996 - 0.03998), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.25 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .