Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 40 m (Ref. 9772), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indian Ocean: Pakistan eastward to the west coast of the Malay Peninsula.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772)
Found in inshore waters. Enters estuaries (Ref. 4833). Feeds on small fishes and invertebrates. Sold fresh and dried-salted in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lal Mohan, R.S., 1984. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3490)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.9 - 29.3, mean 27.8 °C (based on 498 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00638 - 0.01801), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.44-0.73; tm=1.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .