Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 90 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Indian Ocean to Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and Western Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Occurs in inshore waters of the continental shelf (Ref. 75154). Inhabits sandy bottoms near reefs (Ref. 9710). Benthic (Ref. 75154). Anterolateral glandular grooves with venom gland (Ref. 57406). Also found in rubble and mud bottoms in 5-90 m (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sainsbury, K.J., P.J. Kailola and G.G. Leyland, 1985. Continental shelf fishes of the northern and north-western Australia. An illustrated guide. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research; Clouston & Hall and Peter Pownall Fisheries Information Service, Canberra, Australia. 375 p. (Ref. 3131)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 1270 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.00899 - 0.05085), b=2.94 (2.73 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .