Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 452 m (Ref. 50550), usually 100 - 150 m (Ref. 56580). Temperate; 1°C - 9°C (Ref. 56580); 62°N - 46°N, 171°E - 121°W (Ref. 57307)
North Pacific: Sea of Okhotsk, Sea of Japan (Ref. 559), Kuril Islands (Ref. 56580) and the Bering Sea to Puget Sound, Washington, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56580); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56580); max. published weight: 24.00 g (Ref. 56580); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 56580)
(total): 8 - 11;
soft rays: 8 - 11;
Vertebrae: 35 - 37. Lower lobe of pectoral fin with 7 to 8 free rays. A barbel is present on the tip of the snout. Dorsum highly elevated at nape. Branchial membrane free from isthmus. Supralateral and infralateral plates attached to each other on lateral line. Dorsal fins close to each other. Lateral line plates less than 15.
Rocky sand, gravel, or pebble bottoms. Frequently covered by featherlike polyps (small hydroid animals) (Ref. 2850).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.5 - 7.2, mean 5.4 °C (based on 78 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00190 - 0.01207), b=3.06 (2.84 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .