Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hyporhamphus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, rhamphos = beak, bill (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6390). Temperate; 27°S - 44°S
Eastern Indian Ocean: Endemic to Australian temperate waters (Murchison River, Kalbarri in Western Australia to Eden, New South Wales, including Tasmania).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 25 - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10988); max. published weight: 600.00 g (Ref. 6390); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 27011)
Found inshore in surface waters of estuaries, bays, inlets and gulfs to a depth of about 20 m (Ref. 9563). In the South Australian gulfs, southern sea garfish may be found in deeper waters during the colder months (Ref. 27008). Generally herbivorous, seagrasses and algal filaments comprise about 75% of their food (Refs. 26551, 27013). Form schools, generally found near the surface at night and close to the bottom over seagrass beds during the day (Ref. 6390). Post-larvae or young fish less than 1-year-old live in estuaries from March to July then move to inshore marine waters, remaining there for up to 2 years (Ref. 27012).
Collette, B.B., 1974. The garfishes (Hemiramphidae) of Australia and New Zealand. Records of the Australian Museum 29(2):11-105. (Ref. 10988)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.3 - 22.3, mean 17.6 °C (based on 324 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00240 (0.00110 - 0.00524), b=3.11 (2.93 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.27 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.51-0.77; tm=2-3; tmax=10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .