Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Blenniiformes
(Blennies) > Blenniidae
(Combtooth blennies) > Salariinae
Etymology: Hypleurochilus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, pleura = in the side of + Greek, cheilos = lip. More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Western Central Atlantic: Texas, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 52938)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 17. Species distinguished by: pelvic fins with 1 spine and 3 soft rays; pectoral-fin soft rays usually 13 or 14; segmented anal-fin rays usually 17; segmented caudal-fin soft rays usually 13; dorsal fin not separated into 2 portions by deep notch (notch, when present, not reaching nearly to dorsal contour of body); dorsal-fin spines usually 12, the last easy to see; total dorsal-fin elements 25 to 30; preopercular sensory pore series with 5 or more pores at each position (northern Gulf of Mexico); an enlarged canine tooth present posteriorly on both sides of 1 or both jaws (sometimes absent on 1 side); no teeth on vomer; caudal fin uniformly pigmented or mottled with dark spots; gill openings not continuous, each restricted to side of head, extending ventrally to about midlevel of pectoral-fin base or further (may extend completely around lower side of head and form common opening with gill opening of opposite side); cirri present only on eyes; ventral edge of upper lip smooth; lateral line never consisting of 2 disconnected, overlapping portions. Common amongst Blenniids: small, slender fishes, largest species to about 13 cm SL, most under 7.5 cm SL. Eyes high on sides of head; mouth ventral, upper jaw not protractile. A single row of incisor-like teeth in each jaw and often an enlarged canine-like tooth posteriorly on each side of lower jaw and sometimes upper jaw; no teeth on palatines. Dorsal and anal fins long, their spines usually flexible; dorsal fin with fewer spines than segmented (soft) rays; 2 spines in anal fin, scarcely differentiated from the segmented rays, the first not visible in females, both often supporting fleshy, bulbous, rugose swellings at their tips in males; pelvic fins inserted anterior to base of pectoral fins, with 1 spine (not visible) and segmented rays; all segmented fin rays, except those of caudal fin, unbranched (simple), caudal-fin rays of adults branched. All species lack scales (Ref.52855).
Oviparous. Eggs are demersal and adhesive (Ref. 205), and are attached to the substrate via a filamentous, adhesive pad or pedestal (Ref. 94114). Larvae are planktonic, often found in shallow, coastal waters (Ref. 94114).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Springer, V.G., J.T. Williams and T.M. Orrell, 1991. Catalog of type specimens of recent fishes in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 2: Blenniidae. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 519:28. (Ref. 10697)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.2 - 24.7, mean 23.8 °C (based on 103 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00335 - 0.01640), b=3.02 (2.83 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .