Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Temperate; 58°N - 48°N, 11°W - 9°E
Northeast Atlantic: all coasts of the British Isles and English Channel to northern Biscay.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4674)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Dark spot on each side of the snout absent (Ref. 35388).
Inhabits inshore and offshore, although only juveniles appear to occur close inshore. Feeds initially on zooplankton, but for lengths greater than 10 to 15 cm small fish, such as clupeids and ammodytids dominate the diet (Ref. 4674). Spawns in winter and has a more southern distribution (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Reay, P.J., 1986. Ammodytidae. p. 945-950. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4674)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.2 - 12.3, mean 10.8 °C (based on 144 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00331 (0.00171 - 0.00640), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.77 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .