Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Chaetodontidae
Etymology: Heniochus: Greek, enioi, -ai, -a = sometimes, some + Greek, oche = food (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 35°N - 29°S, 105°E - 137°W
Pacific Ocean: Indonesia to the Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Rowley Shoals and New Caledonia; throughout Micronesia. Reported from Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean (Ref. 5439). Replaced by Heniochus pleurotaenia in the Indian Ocean (Ref. 37816).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 17 - 18. This species is distinguished by the following characters: adults with a pair of prominent horns on the forehead, just above the eyes and a distinct protuberance on forehead; snout length 2.9-3.5 in HL; greatest body depth 1.3-1.5 in SL. Colour solid brown to blackish triangular area between white bands (2 white bands running from caudal peduncle and breast to each end of spinous section of dorsal fin) (Ref. 90102).
Occur in deep lagoons and steep outer reef slopes, with mixed algae and coral growth (Ref. 48636). Solitary or in small groups. Feed on corals and other invertebrates (Ref. 9710). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Maximum depth reported taken from Ref. 48636.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.4 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 1964 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01117 - 0.04486), b=3.02 (2.85 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 88.5 [53.1, 147.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.798 [0.525, 1.320] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [18.0, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.139 [0.089, 0.215] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.1 [17.0, 55.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 42.2 [13.7, 132.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.33 [0.90, 1.94] mg/100g (wet weight);