Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 35 m (Ref. 559), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Western Pacific: Japan, Taiwan, Philippines and Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 6 - 7;
soft rays: 10. Characterized by pale greyish brown with blackish blotch at upper rear margin of gill cover, longitudinal row of five, horizontally ovate to rectangular blackish blotches with smaller white spots between on side at level of pectoral fin base, first below spinous dorsal fin and last at midbase of caudal fin; back with about five diffuse saddles and numerous dark brown to blackish spots; white streak on middle of pectoral fin; first dorsal spine of each fin and sharp; fully united pelvic fins, frenum present; rounded caudal fin; longitudinal scale series 27; predorsal scales 7-8; ctenoid scales on body, becoming cycloid on head, pectoral fin base and prepelvic area; fully scaled cheek and opercle; depth of body 4.5-6.2 in SL (Ref. 90102).
Inhabits sand and rubble bottoms (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.6 - 28.5, mean 27 °C (based on 27 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00332 - 0.01511), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .