Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 271 m (Ref. 58302), usually 30 - ? m (Ref. 30404). Tropical; 30°N - 23°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and Transkei, South Africa (Ref. 3257) to the Hawaiian and Marquesan islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 180 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 0. Large individuals; body dark yellow-brown numerous, smaller than pupil-sized spots that become small and numerous anteriorly, but large and widely spaced posteriorly (Ref. 48635). Yellow inside the mouth (Ref. 30404, 48635). This species has a relatively short, blunt snout; the larger specimens lack vomerine teeth and median intermaxillary teeth; the largest teeth are finely serrate; and jaws not arched, even in large specimens (Ref. 74922).
Mainly in oceanic locations (Ref. 48635); inhabits inner and outer reef slopes (Ref. 30404). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Mucus is toxic (Ref. 1602).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chen, H.-M., K.-T. Shao and C.T. Chen, 1994. A review of the muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zool. Stud. 33(1):44-64. (Ref. 6934)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 1602)
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.6 - 28.1, mean 26.1 °C (based on 626 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00056 (0.00035 - 0.00089), b=3.28 (3.15 - 3.41), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (82 of 100) .