Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 325 m (Ref. 6793), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
North Pacific: Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk to the Chukchi Peninsula and Norton Sound, Alaska to Kiska Island in the Aleutian chain and southeastern Alaska.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56557); common length : 19.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56557); max. published weight: 240.00 g (Ref. 56557); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 56557)
(total): 9 - 11;
soft rays: 14 - 18. A few bony plates usually present on median line of interorbital space (Ref. 559). Supraocular cirrus absent in adults (Ref. 559). Three pairs of bony tubercles on occiput (Ref. 559). Cleithral spine not developed (Ref. 559). In males, spatulate cirri present on pectoral axil (Ref. 559).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -1.2 - 6.4, mean 1.7 °C (based on 722 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00562 - 0.01412), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.26 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=9-10;k=0.2-0.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .