Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Uranoscopoidei
(Sand dwellers) > Ammodytidae
Etymology: Gymnammodytes: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, ammos = sand + Greek, dytes = somebody that likes immersions or diving (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Temperate; 62°N - 37°N, 11°W - 13°E
Northeast Atlantic: southern coast of Norway and the Shetlands to Spain, including all coasts of the British Isles and the North Sea, but not the Baltic.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4645)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 26 - 31. Palate without pointed teeth. Lateral line branched. Margins of dorsal and anal fins undulated. Scales restricted to the posterior third of the body (Ref. 35388).
Typically offshore over shell-gravel, also inshore where shell-gravel beaches occur. Feed on plankton. Summer batch spawner (Ref. 4674). By-catch in sand eel fisheries (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Reay, P.J., 1986. Ammodytidae. p. 945-950. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4674)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.7 - 12.4, mean 10.4 °C (based on 502 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00251 (0.00126 - 0.00501), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 50.7 [26.6, 94.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.334 [0.205, 0.568] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.9, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.394 [0.221, 0.687] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.9 [9.7, 41.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.85 [3.13, 30.45] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.763 [0.521, 1.101] mg/100g (wet weight);